The Department of Justice distributes the Guide to
Nonprofit Board Service to assist board members of non-profit corporations in
understanding their rights, roles and responsibilities. Copies of the guide are
also available by calling (971) 673-1880.
Board members are recruited for a
variety of reasons. Some individuals are talented fundraisers and are sought by
charities for that reason. Others bring credibility and prestige to an
But whatever the other reasons for service, the principal role of the board member is stewardship. The directors of the corporation are ultimately responsible for the management of the affairs of the charity. This requires active participation. People who do not have the time to regularly participate should not agree to be on a board. The board must insure that the organization is operated for a charitable/public purpose; it may not be operated for private benefit. Proper stewardship requires that the organization's assets be held "in trust", to be applied to its charitable mission.
One of the most important functions of the board is keeping the resources and efforts focused on the charity's mission. This requires the board to have an adequate understanding of the organization's programs, people and resources available to achieve the organization's goals. As a starting point, every board member should be familiar with the organization's Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws.
The board is not expected to manage the day-to-day activities of the charity. The directors appoint officers so that they, in turn, can carry out the day-to-day activities of the organization. It is the board's responsibility to hire the chief executive officer and to oversee that person's work to see that the charity is fulfilling its mission. The board should periodically review and assess the chief executive's performance. If it becomes necessary, the board has the authority and the responsibility to discharge the CEO.
A related function of the board is to set the compensation of the charity's CEO. Every board member should know what the CEO is paid and participate in the final decision. The compensation should be reasonable for the services rendered and compare favorably to similarly situated executives. The board should remember that CEO compensation, as well as that of other key executive officers, may be important to donors, beneficiaries and the community-at-large. The compensation levels will be reported in financial reports which will be accessible to the general public.
In order to carry out your legal
responsibilities as a board member, you must be able to make informed judgments
about important matters regarding the organization and operations of the
charity. The law permits you to reasonably rely on information from the
charity's staff, its lawyer, its accountant, outside advisors, and board
committees in making those judgments.
Your right to information includes the following: You have the right to reasonable access to management, to have reasonable access to internal information of the organization and to the organization's principal advisors, such as its auditors and lawyers. Senior management must also be willing to facilitate board access to books and records of the charity. The board has the right, if necessary, to engage the services of outside advisors at the charity's expense to assist it with a particular matter.
In carrying out board
responsibilities,, the law generally imposes three duties of trust. They are
regularly described as the duties of due care, loyalty to the corporation and
obedience to the law.
Duty of due care. This responsibility generally requires that a director must discharge the duties with the care an ordinary prudent person in a like position would exercise under similar circumstances. ORS 65.357. Directors need not always be right, but they must act with common sense and informed judgment. To exercise this duty properly, boards must pay particular attention to the following:
Duty of loyalty. Directors have a duty to give their undivided loyalty to the charitable corporation. Decisions regarding the organization's funds and activities must promote the organization's public purpose rather than private interest. Any potential conflict transactions should be scrutinized closely by the board with the realization that the public will predictably be skeptical of such arrangements. There are some general principles which will serve to guide boards faced with conflict of interest situations.
Duty of obedience. Directors have a duty to follow the organization's governing documents (Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws), to carry out the organization's mission and to ensure that funds are used for lawful purposes. Also, directors must comply with other state and federal laws that relate to the organization and the way in which it conducts its business. For example, directors should be familiar with:
Other duties. In addition to the above three general fiduciary duties, there are a number of specific responsibilities which must be observed by nonprofit corporate board members.
Satisfactory corporate documents and records. A charitable corporation is required to have Articles of Incorporation and Bylaws. You should see that they are updated and consider amendments if they do not reflect the current mission and operating procedures of the organization. The organization is also required to keep minutes of its board meetings and a record of all actions taken by committees of the board of directors. ORS 65.771.
Adequate financial records and controls. One of the board's responsibilities is to oversee the organization's financial affairs. Make sure that the organization has adequate internal accounting systems and controls. With embezzlement from nonprofit organizations on the rise, it is imperative that financial controls are in place before theft occurs. The board should be responsible for approving the organization's annual budget. Board members should expect the CEO (or other designated staff) to produce timely and adequate income and expense statements, balance sheets and budget status reports, and should expect to receive these in advance of board meetings. With large organizations, the board should employ, either directly or through an audit and finance committee, an independent auditor and review the auditor's annual report at a face-to-face meeting.
Safeguarding. The board should oversee the effective use of the resources of the organization. Policies should be adopted and large transactions approved to ensure that the organization's assets are not misapplied or wasted. The board should ensure that the assets are invested prudently, avoiding high risk investments and employing some diversification of investments.
Observing donor restrictions. All donations must be used in a manner which is consistent with the organization's stated mission. However, some donors designate that gifts are to be used for a particular purpose. It is important to keep faith with donor intentions. The board is obligated to see that such restricted funds are used for the stated purpose(s).
Responsible solicitation activities. Some organizations decide to hire professional fundraisers to conduct or assist in soliciting donations. When hiring a fund raiser, select one who is trustworthy; ask for references. Make sure any contract with a professional fund raiser or consultant, especially the terms for compensation, is fair and reasonable from the charity's perspective. Be aware that most donors expect the majority of their contributions to be used for program services and that many "watchdog" organization standards limit annual fundraising costs to no more than 35% of total expenditures. Certain types of contracts require the organization's officers and directors to observe specific procedures. ORS 128.814.
It is possible that board members
of a charitable corporation will find themselves sued as personal defendants in
a lawsuit filed by an "outside third party" who has incurred some personal
injury or financial loss as a result of dealings with the organization. To
encourage citizens to serve as board members for charities, the law cloaks
volunteer board members with qualified immunity. They cannot be sued for
negligent acts. They may, however, be subject to lawsuits alleging that a loss
was due to their gross negligence, willful or fraudulent acts.
NOTE — The IRS may also hold directors personally liable if the organization violates federal tax law. The most likely situation is the failure of the organization to perform mandatory payroll withholding. Because there is some degree of risk, including the cost of defending a frivolous claim, directors should discuss with the organization's attorney the prospect of purchasing directors and officers (D and O) liability insurance, and/or including indemnification provisions in the organization's governing documents.